Ultimate Fighting Championship
The Ten Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Moves Every Cop Should Know
Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu burst onto the scene in America when a quiet, good-looking Brazilian named Royce Gracie shocked the martial arts world by winning the first Ultimate Fighting Championship in a seemingly effortless fashion.
What the rest of the world didn’t know is that the Gracie family had been developing this art for the past 75 years in Rio de Janiero. What’s become known as Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) proved to be a dominating factor in mixed-martial arts tournaments throughout the 1990s’.
The public safety sector picked up on its success and now agencies such as the FBI, DEA, and LAPD and various elite groups of the military including the Rangers, Delta Force and Marines have included the techniques of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu in their curriculum.
“With this you are able to survive long enough for help to get there,” says Pat “Hawk” Hardy, long-time law enforcement officer and current assistant district attorney and criminal investigator for Jasper County, Texas. “The thing that makes it great for law enforcement is that it’s easy to learn, you don’t have to be super athletic and it is effective.”
Hardy should know what he is talking about – he has 35 years of martial arts experience with a national full-contact karate championship title won in 1975. In 1977 he fought for the world full-contact karate title.
“What I like about Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu is that it’s easy to do,” he says. “Most of your criminals out there have plenty of time to workout and get strong, a lot more time than you or me with a family and trying to make a honest living.”
BJJ Reduces Injuries, Claims
According to Sgt. Greg Dossey of the Los Angeles Police Department, the adoption of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu into its arrest and control curriculum is good for LAPD officers, arrestees and the community. LAPD now has a curriculum that consists of ground techniques based on Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, as well as the traditional joint locks and “pugilistics” or striking techniques.
In the first two years the techniques were introduced, Dossey says there was a 19 percent reduction in injuries to arrestees and a 8.5 percent reduction in injuries to officers. There was a 13 percent reduction in excessive force claims against the department and a nine percent drop in civil actions filed against the city.
He says 6,400 officers have been through the 40-hour program and they receive continuing training three times a month as well as bi-annual divisional training and an annual recertification.
“We don’t try to make them the world’s most skillful grappler,” says Dossey, “but we definitely give them enough skills to develop confidence on the ground.”
He attributes a 24 percent decrease in the use of force reported in all arrests to that increased officer confidence.
Advantages for Public Safety Personnel
The reality-based techniques and the emphasis on controlling the subject makes Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu perfect for public safety personnel. The techniques put you into a position where your opponent cannot strike you, but you could, if you chose to, strike him. This gives officers and public safety workers an option to increase the escalation of force. The techniques also allow a smaller officer to wear out a larger and more aggressive subject. The techniques do not rely on pressure points for pain compliance. The bulk of the techniques center on joint locks and carotid restraints. This means that the officer does not have to be stronger than the suspect, they only have to be stronger than the suspect’s weakest point – usually his elbow, shoulder, ankle or neck.
The techniques are relatively easy to perform and are quickly picked up by students. In fact, we’ve had students with as little as two training sessions report using the techniques successfully in securing an arrest. The responses of opponents to the techniques and strategy of BJJ practitioners are amazingly predictable, allowing skilled practitioners to appear almost magical in their ability to maneuver the subject.
Many martial artists and defensive tactics instructors tell their students to “never go to the ground” with a subject because of the dangers to be found there. However, Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu practitioners aim for the exact opposite outcome – their goal is to almost always take the fight to the ground. Both LAPD statistics and the Gracie family assert that between 65 to 85 percent of altercations eventually end up on the ground anyway. The Gracies have made a career of training to live and feel comfortable in the position which has the greatest probability of occurring. Conversely, when you stand up in an altercation, the variables for you concerning distance, weapons, strikes and movement are theoretically infinite. Unfortunately, the momentum of any fight can be reversed instantly by your opponent when he lands a lucky punch or kick, but on the ground everything slows down and the opponent cannot generate much force behind his strikes.
Here are the ten Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu techniques you should know:
1. The Clinch
The most dangerous distance in any altercation is kicking and punching range. Unfortunately, most social interaction is done within punching range. The BJJ practitioner wants to either be all the way outside of hitting range or all the way inside of hitting range. Therefore, most often the BJJ practitioner will close the distance between himself and the opponent to the clinch, which controls the subject and limits his punching and kicking ability. Often an attacker is surprised when you close with him instead of backing up which is what most people do when attacked.
To safely close the distance into the clinch, you must get your head against the opponent’s chest which puts you inside of his punching range, effectively negating his punches.
Get your hands up to your forehead with your forearms protecting your face like a train’s cowcatcher. Your fists tightly are locked against your forehead and your elbows are leading forward, protecting your face against a punch.
Move into your opponent by leading with a leg check or a distracting kick to his leg.
As you close the distance, sweep your hands out like you are swimming the breast stroke to block both of his biceps on each arm. Trap his arms by hooking your hands over his triceps and using your forearms to control his arms. You have your forehead tight against his chest while hooking over the back of his triceps. By pulling in on his arms and pushing with your head against his chest, you develop isometric tension, which limits his punching and movement.
Now, complete the clinch by reaching around his back with one arm and moving to that side. For LEOs, move to your gun side. Trap his other arm tightly under your armpit and protect your face by burying it in the biceps of his trapped arm. Pinching your thighs on his leg closest to you limits his ability to turn and knee you to the groin.
Now I have control of the subject with one arm around his waist, which I can secure by holding his belt or clothing. This should be my gun arm. I can release my hold to either protect my sidearm or to draw it as needed. With my other arm I am trapping his arm under my armpit and holding the back of his elbow to hold it and use it as a shield for my own face.
Finally, I am controlling his leg closest to me to limit his movement and to protect against a knee to the groin.
2. The Rear Takedown
Often, the next move from the clinch is the rear takedown, but this takedown can also be effective when used during a standard search with the subject against a wall or vehicle.
If the suspect begins to resist, clasp him around the waist from behind much like you did in the clinch with your head down to avoid any elbow targeted at your face.
Move your foot out block his far foot (for example your right foot steps out to the right to block behind his right heel).
Sit down to drag the suspect to the ground, tripping him over your outstretched leg. He can’t catch his balance because you are blocking his foot from stepping back.
Roll on top of him for the mount.
3. The Mount
The mount is one of the trademark positions of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu. The position allows you to control your opponent with a minimum of effort by using your body weight. Opponents often exhaust themselves trying desperately to escape this position. You also have the advantage of being able to strike your opponent, but they have very little leverage to strike you.
Sit astride of your opponent’s chest.
Put both knees on the ground and slide them as high into his armpits as possible.
Both of your hands should be spread out wide braced on the ground for balance and to counter your opponent’s attempts to roll over. Guard your duty weapon by sliding your gun side hand under the suspect’s arm on that side. Stretch your gun hand high above the suspect’s head to force his arm up and away from your weapon.
Relax your body and become dead weight on the suspect. You can pin his head to the ground to limit his body movement by pushing your stomach against his face.
4. The Back Mount
This is exactly like the mount with the exception that you are astride the suspect and he is face down. You will find yourself in this highly advantageous position a surprising number of times when you start mounted on an opponent as in #3 above. In their effort to escape, almost everyone rolls onto their stomach. Relax the grip you have with your knees when you are mounted and allow them to roll onto their stomach — it’s a better position for you to begin cuffing anyway. Wrestlers are especially susceptible to this since they have trained to stay off their backs.
5. The Closed Guard
Conversely, the BJJ practitioner stays on his back to control you with his legs in the closed guard, a position that the Gracies are particularly adept. It is primarily a defensive position, but allows you to control a suspect that has overpowered you.
When you are on your back, face the opponent and wrap both of your legs around your opponent so that his body is in between your thighs. The higher on his torso you can wrap your legs the better.
Use your legs to pull the suspect towards you.
Capture one of his arms by trapping it under your arm and grabbing behind his elbow. For a civilian, this would be the arm he is trying to punch you with, but the LEO will have to secure the arm closest to his own weapon for safety.
Use your other hand to hold his head down both to limit his ability to sit upright and to guard against his using it to headbutt you. You can either hold the back of his head as pictured above or by the back of the neck. Block his punches to your head with your elbow and punches to your ribs with your elbow and knee.
Hold him here until the cavalry arrives. Be cognizant of your weapon. You can keep him from reaching it by either holding his arm tight under your armpit or using your knee in his bicep to push his arm away from your holster. I don’t advocate finishing techniques like cross chokes, box chocks or guillotine chokes that use both of your arms and leave your duty weapon exposed.
6. The Kimura
Used as either a weapon-retention technique or an armlock when you have the suspect in your guard, this move is not named by the Gracies, but many BJJ circles call it the “Kimura” after a Japanese judo champion.
Grab the wrist of the hand reaching for your holster.
Unhook your legs and place both feet on the ground.
Sit up and reach all the way over his shoulder of the arm that you have trapped. You will have to scoot your hips back away from him to have enough room to reach over his shoulder.
Reach in between his arm and his ribs to grasp the wrist of your arm that has seized the suspect. This grip is sometimes called a “Figure 4”.
Using the leverage of your feet on the ground and the Figure 4 grip you have on his arm, drive his head forward toward the ground as you scoot out to the same side which has the armlock.
Control the suspect by holding his arm tight to your chest so that it is bent in a shape like an ‘L’. One of your legs will be under the suspect. Place your other leg over him and cross your ankles to keep him from escaping.
Now that you have the suspect controlled and his arm bent behind his back, you have the option of holding him until backup arrives or you can continue to scoot out from under him and begin cuffing him.
7. The Open Guard
If the suspect is too large or too strong to contain in your closed guard, you will need to switch to an open guard to push him back.
As he sits up to begin punching you, thrust both of your knees into his chest.
With your head back on the ground and your hands up to protect your face, arch your back and push him back to keep the distance you need to keep from being struck.
If he reaches for your weapon, be prepared to pull him into your closed guard and perform the Kimura noted above.
If he stands up, you might need to switch to an alternate open guard position:
Put your back on the floor and your feet on his hips, using them to control his distance.
This also works well for someone trying to choke you from the front:
Trap one or both of his arms that he is using to choke you.
Place your feet on his hips and pull him forward until his head is even with yours.
Use your legs to pick him up and flip him over your head. As you get skilled at this throw, you can control the opponent on the way over and roll up onto him in a mount position.
8. The Cross Side
This is another major BJJ position that uses body weight to control the opponent.
Center your torso over the suspect so that you are sternum to sternum.
Raise your knees off the ground and stay up on your toes to center more weight on the opponent and to allow you to move with the suspect as he struggles.
Keep the elbow of your arm closest to his head tucked tightly into his neck or ear to limit his movement. Your forearm should be along the ground perpendicular to his body to provide a brace so you won’t be rolled off.
Use your other arm (hidden in the photo shown) to hold his wrist or his hip closest to you.
Be aware of your weapon. The accompanying photo shows the officer with his gun side toward the suspect’s head. (All of the photos were shot with the officer on the left for continuity.) It would be preferable to cross side the suspect on the other side so that the officer’s weapon is closest to the suspect’s hip and out of reach of either hand. You can remedy this situation by simply rotating your feet around the suspect’s head and moving into the cross side position on the other side of the suspect (with your weapon down at the suspect’s hip).
9. The Knee Mount
Control the suspect by placing your knee into, or your shin across, his stomach.
Your other foot is planted firmly on the ground away from the suspect’s head.
Keep your back straight and your head up to prevent being hit in the face.
It is important that you put almost all of your weight onto his stomach. Primarily this is to use your weight to anchor the opponent, but also it is so your pivot point is centered directly over his body. Your other leg simply provides the balance needed to keep from falling. The mistake that most cops make is that they keep too much weight on their foot instead of the knee in the belly. If you don’t keep the weight on your knee, he is going to wiggle his hip away from your knee and you are going to lose the knee mount.
If you feel yourself beginning to lose the position, simply push your knee all the way across his stomach and assume the mount position.
10. The Rear Carotid Restraint
This is one of the major submissions used in Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu. While many police departments are placing severe limitations on the use of carotid restraints, BJJ practitioners have been using them with great success for decades without producing lethal results or even serious injury. The key is to apply the technique correctly.
Reach deep in front of the suspect towards his stomach, molding your biceps against the side of his neck.
Bend your arm so that your elbow is pointed straight down and the crook of your elbow is directly below his trachea. This is the key — the space created by the crook of your elbow protects the subject’s windpipe. There should be no pressure on his trachea.
Reach up high and grab your own shoulder or simply grasp a handful of your uniform shirt.
Now your biceps and the inside of your forearm are pressing on the sides of his neck, but there is still no contact made on his windpipe.
Place your free hand behind his head and use it to push the back of his head forward.
Push the elbow of your arm that encircles his neck into his chest like you are squeezing it towards his spine. This usually gets your arm under his chin.
Now shrug your shoulders up. The motion is like you are hanging him.
An incorrect, but often too common, neck restraint puts too much pressure directly on the suspect’s trachea.
An officer attempts the neck restraint, but doesn’t get his arm deep enough around the suspect’s throat, clasping his hands on the suspect’s shoulder.
In this position it is most likely that the officer will pull backwards with the muscles of his upper back and arms which draws his forearm directly across the suspect’s trachea.
“In all my years of martial arts and law enforcement, I’ve never seen anything like BJJ,” says Hardy. “It is a great equalizer, as important to an officer as having a pistol.”
author: Maynard Keenan
A conversation with Gracie Jiu Jitsu Master Rickson Gracie
Balance. This simple concept seems to be the underlying answer to all
questions posed by Steve and I to Rickson Gracie (pronounced
Hickson) this morning. Rickson, a native of Brazil, is one of the
older brothers or Royce Gracie (three time champion of the popular pay
per view event “The Ultimate Fighting Championship”) and, with a
record of far more than four hundred straight wins, is considered to
be the most formidable of the Gracie Jiu Jitsu practitioners. Steve
and I asked at great length what, in his opinion, made it possible for
him to achieve such a status. Much to my pleasure, it had nothing to
do with being a three hundred pound hairy ape on steroids. It had
nothing to do with lifting weights till you achieve stretch marks or
eating any and everything all day long. Nor did it have anything to do
with hatred, psychosis, or whateveraphobia. It did, however have
everything to do with balance.
Rickson: Jiu Jitsu is like a philosophy. It helps me learn how to face
Maynard: In what way?
Rickson: In every way. To understand our society, to relate myself to
people, to compete in an actual self defense tournament, to feel
confident to walk on the street and to be able to help people, to be
strong enough to forgive…
——-Balancing the Scales of Justice——
Maynard: Do you think it is better to avoid a fight rather than to
provoke a fight?
Rickson: I believe that you must do what you believe you have to do.
If I don’t believe I should fight, I’m not gonna fight. My decision
is based more on my personal honor than it is on who I’m channeling my
anger towards. For example, if I see a guy smacking an old lady I’m
going to do something about that. I don’t care who it is. It’s a
moral concern. I cannot live with this on my mind without taking
action just because I don’t know who it is. In cases like this my
honor, my dignity, and my moral code is much more important than my
——Balancing Aggressive Nature with Physical Limitations——
Steve: Do you think that Gracie Jiu Jitsu has something for the person
who doesn’t have a natural talent?
Rickson: Definitely. I can’t think of any one with less physical
ability than my father, Helio Gracie. When my father was twelve the
doctor said that he couldn’t do any exercise because of vertigo. If he
ran 200 yards in a sprint, he would pass out. But he is a very short
tempered, tough guy. So with the impossibility of using power while
training with his uncle in Jiu Jitsu, he was forced to develop his
own technique thus balancing his inability. We like to say that
Einstein was to mathematics what Helio Gracie is to Jiu Jitsu. He
totally invented 80 percent of the Jiu Jitsu we have today. Leverage
and sensitivity and using the opponent’s energy against himself are
basic to Jiu Jitsu, but the application of these principles was never
done in the way my father developed them. My father broke the mold. He
initiated a different perspective. It used to be that when someone
told you, “hey, there’s a tough guy coming here to kick your ass,” you
imagine this big guy with and ugly face. He’s 280 pounds and has big
fists. You don’t imagine a guy who weighs 135 pounds.
——Balancing Wants and Needs——
Maynard: I don’t know if you realize how significant it is but, seeing
your whole family showing up in support of Royce at the UFCs is a very
moving image for many people. It seems that you don’t see that kind of
family love and pride much anymore.
Rickson: Especially in the big cities. People don’t make the time to
give to each other. I think that’s just a sign of our times. Smart are
the ones who try to preserve those old elements. People today just
want to make money. I understand that and respect that but… I find
myself in a very fortunate position because I love what I’m doing and
I’m good at it. So I make a living.
Maynard: It seems that here in the states, people are more concerned
with doing something to make money than they are with doing what it is
that they love to do. They decide that money is the goal and then
begin to figure out what they’ve got to do to get it. They forget to
listen to themselves to find out what it is they really are not only
best suited for but are passionate about as well.
Rickson: Yes. I think exactly the opposite. You need to make money but
it should never be the priority. What you like to do is what you
should try your best at doing. The money is gonna come. That’s the way
people really get rich, you know? They just enjoy what they do and the
money comes in some way. It’s the same with the work out. Some people
think that the workout is to increase heartbeats or flexibility or
endurance or coordination. So they make up exercises to improve one of
more of these areas. When I’m doing exercise, what I’m trying to do is
meditate. Get in a state that I feel a balance between body, mind, and
spirit. It’s just enjoyment. When I train in Jiu Jitsu I don’t have a
clock in mind. I’m just feeling and flowing. When playing or surfing
or hiking there are no timings or special rules. If you love it you
just get into it with your whole body. You don’t care that it’s
Maynard: …and the endurance comes.
Rickson: I can’t imagine going on a stair master or lifting weights or
whatever to get in shape.
——Balancing the Diet——
Maynard: I heard that the Gracies also follow a specific diet.
Rickson: Yes. It doesn’t have as much to do with what or how much you
eat as it does with how you combine your foods. You can eat
vegetables, fruit, rice, beans, meat, or whatever. But the most
important thing is the food combinations. The digestive process is the
biggest workout your body does on a daily basis. You use energy to
digest. You can save energy by choosing foods that digest better in
certain combinations, and you can absorb more nutrients and gain more
energy by choosing food that use compatible enzymes to digest.
Maynard: So in the reverse…if you eat something that is difficult to
digest and has no nutritional value…
Rickson: Exactly. You waste even more energy. We are not cows. We
don’t have to eat all day long to maintain. We eat, digest, absorb,
then rest. For me, I think three meals a day is enough. I spend at
least four hours in between without anything but water.
Maynard: A very traditional Brazilian dish is black beans and rice,
but in your diet this is a bad combo.
Rickson: That’s right. What you really want to fight in your body is
the fermentation process. Fermentation basically is a bad combination
between acids you produce to digest your food. For example, when you
eat rice, your mouth produces specific acids to break down the rice so
your stomach can begin the digestive process. When you eat ice cream,
or an apple, or watermelon juice, your mouth produces completely
different acids. And that can create a bad chemical reaction in your
body. You feel heavy or sluggish which is not good. It’s not only
uncomfortable, it’s counter productive.
——Balancing Perspective/Points of View——
Rickson: I believe that you should have an evolutionary point of view.
You must meditate, you must pray, you must be thankful, you must give.
I think those things are very important spiritually for you to be at
peace with yourself. Once you’ve tried to improve spiritually,
physically, and mentally your are in a good way. Even if I lost my two
legs now I don’t think that it would make me lose the sense of life.
Of course I’m not gonna be a fighter anymore, but I’m able to allow
myself to do other things. I’m gonna try to swim. I’m gonna try to
surf. I don’t know what else, but I’m definitely going to still be in
love with life and learning. I’ve always wanted to learn how to play
the piano, but I’ve never had the time. Or play the guitar. So many
things. Some people have legs and they don’t use them because they’ve
focused on something else. I think every bad thing has a good way to
look at it. Of course I love to do what I’m doing, but if I get
sick…understand? The mind is so beautiful and so wild and you can
have so many different things. There’s always a good side to
everything. Nothing is totally desperate. Like “Oh…I lost my job.”
You lost your job? Go to the beach, man. Get some waves.
Maynard: If you have a clear mind like that, and if you have
confidence in life and in yourself you’re going to get fed.
Rickson: Definitely. You can’t be negative all the time.
Maynard: You can, but don’t expect for things to come to you very
Photoand Story by Dan Bernardi
Marc Stevens, right, trained under the direction of Ken Kronenberg, left, at Tai Kai Jiu Jitsu in Liverpool. Stevens is a current cast member on Ultimate Fighter 12, airing at 10 p.m. Wednesdays on Spike TV.
The third time was the charm for mixed martial artist Marc Stevens on his road to being featured on the television show Ultimate Fighter, airing on Spike TV.
On his third time trying out for the popular cable program, Stevens, who trained in Liverpool, was cast for a shot at UFC stardom.
The show pits two teams of aspiring Lightweight and Light Heavyweight mixed martial arts fighters against each other under the coaching of accomplished Ultimate Fighting Championship veterans.
Stevens has come a long way since getting his start in Mixed Martial Arts in 2005. Prior to then, he had only wrestled.
“I wrestled my whole life. After I left college I was watching the first season of the Ultimate Fighter and saw my old wrestling coach,” Stevens said. The coach was Josh Koscheck, who was an assistant coach at the University of Buffalo at the time Stevens wrestled there.
That spurred him to find out more about the sport of MMA.
Stevens began training with Ken Kronenberg at Tai Kai Jiu Jitsu (www. syracusebjj.com), 911 Old Liverpool Road, Liverpool.
At Tai Kai Jiu Jitsu, Stevens learned the art of Brazilian Jiu Jitsu, which is a style made famous by Royce Gracie, a UFC Hall of Famer. The style centers around grappling and ground fighting. Using this technique, a smaller defender can often defend against a larger opponent by using a combination of joint-locks and choke holds. This skill combined with a background in wrestling makes Stevens a versatile fighter.
Since 2005, Stevens had attended two Ultimate Fighter casting calls.
“This was actually the third time I had tried out,” Stevens said. “I got a call from my manager about a week before the tryout and he told me I had to be in North Carolina the next week for tryouts for the show.”
Stevens went to North Carolina, tried out, and returned home to wait.
“If they don’t call you just didn’t make it, if they call then you know your going to be on a plane in two days. You’re going to Vegas for casting,” he said.
He was flown to Las Vegas for three days of medical check-ups and interviews with Ultimate Fighter producers.
“After you come home (from Las Vegas) they call you either way,” Stevens said.
Luckily for Stevens, the call was one in which the Ultimate Fighter producers told him they wanted him on the show.
Stevens wasn’t sure whether he would automatically be granted a spot in the house or if he would have to fight his way in.
On the season premiere of Ultimate Fighter 12, Stevens was featured in a match against fellow upcomer TJ O’Brien to determine who would earn a spot in the Ultimate Fighter house. Stevens fought in the first match of the show and defeated O’Brien in 13 seconds.
When asked if that was Stevens biggest match of his life, he answered, “Yeah, I would. Some of the guys had said that. Javier Mendez, (founder of the American Kickboxing Academy) brought up a good point when he said, ‘This shouldn’t be different from any other fight, every fight is your biggest fight.’”
Stevens kept this in mind and tried not to let the fact that this would perhaps be the most noticed and widely talked about moment of his young MMA career affect his preparation.
“I had fought on TV before, but never on a stage like that. The thoughts (regarding the magnitude of the fight) would come in and I’d try to get them out.”
For Stevens, this is the most important time in his career. He explained that opportunities to be featured on a national stage are very rare and success is a necessity.
“As a fighter you have a short window,” Stevens said. “You’re no good to anyone if you lose, you’re pretty much done because nobody wants to watch it.”
To watch Marc Stevens on his quest to become the Ultimate Fighter, tune in to Spike TV at 10 p.m. Wednesdays.
Marc Stevens is a cast member on Ultimate Fighter 12 on Spike TV. The show airs at 10 p.m. Wednesdays.